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 How to write a paragraph

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مُساهمةموضوع: How to write a paragraph   السبت نوفمبر 22, 2008 4:49 am






Parts of a Paragraph



Three essential parts compose any paragraph: a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence.

Topic Sentence: it states the main idea of the paragraph. It contains the name of the topic that is to be carried out. This sentence has to be precise, but avoid telling everything in the first sentence or your reader will lose interest. The topic sentence serves to limit the topic to one or two areas that will be discussed entirely in the space of one paragraph. The area is what we call the controling idea.

What does it do?
It introduces the main idea of the paragraph.

How do I write one?
Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about.

Example:
There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.



Supporting Sentences:

What are supporting sentences?
They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph.
It means that these sentences explain the topic by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations.

What do they do?
They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph.

How do I write them?
You should give supporting facts, details, and examples.

Example:

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.



Closing Sentences:

What is the closing sentence?
The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph.
What does it do?
It restates the main idea of your paragraph.

How do I write one?
Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words.

Example:

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

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a good paragraph also needs two important elements: unity and coherence.

Unity: it means that in your paragraph you discuss one and only one main idea which is stated in the topic sentence and then developed by the supporting sentences.
Coherence: it means that your paragraph is easy to read and understand because:
your supporting sentences are in logical order
your ideas are connected by the use of a appropriate transition signals.


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Prewriting a Paragraph


The prewriting stage is when you think carefully and organize your ideas for your paragraph before you begin writing. There are six steps involved in this process. They are the following:



-Think carefully about what you are going to write. Ask yourself: "What question am I going to answer in this -paragraph or essay? How can I make this paragraph interesting? What facts can be stated to support this topic?
-Write your answers to the above questions and do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. Just write enough to help you remember why and how you are writing.
-Collect facts related to your topic. Write down facts that will help you answer your questions.
-Write down your own ideas. Ask yourself: What other things can I include about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important?
-Find the main idea of your paragraph: Chose the most important point. If you cannot decide which is the most important one, just chose one and stick to it throughout your paragraph.
-Organize your facts and ideas to develop your topic, find the best way to tell the reader about it. Decide which facts will support the main idea.


Writing a Paragraph


The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences and you communicate them. Some important steps are the following:


Write a topic sentence, some supporting sentences, and one closing sentence
Make sure that the sentences are clear, simple, and they express what you really mean
Focus on the main idea of your paragraph
Re-read what you wrote and see if the idea is clear and you can read it with ease

Editing a Paragraph


The editing stage is when you check your paragraph for mistakes and correct them. Do not forget to do the following:

1-Check your grammar and spelling
Read your text again and make sure each sentence makes sense 2-
See if your paragraph is interesting to read 3-


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Transitional Signals

Transition signals can be compared to traffic signs. They are words that tell you to go forward, to turn, to slow down and to stop. Better said, they help the reader when to you are giving a similar idea, an opposite idea, an example, a result, or a conclusion. As a writer it is important to use these types of words to help you follow your ideas coherently.

Types of Transitional Signals

Transition words can be classified taking into account they type of help they might offer a writer. They can be classified in the following types:


Words that Show Addition
They aid the writer when he or she wants to present two or more ideas that continue along the same line of thought. Some common adition words are: and, also, another, in addition, moreover, first of all, second, third, furthermore, finally.


Words that Show Time
They indicate a time relationship. They tell us when an specific event took place in relation to another. Some of these words are: First, then, often, since, next, before, after, soon, as, now, until, previously, while, during, immediately, frequently.


Words that Show Contrast
They signal a change in the direction of the writer's thought. They tell us a new idea will be different in a significant way from the previous one. Some contrast words are: but, however, yet, although, in contrast, instead, still, in spite of, despite, on the other hand, on the contrary.


Word that Show Comparison
These words are used when a writer wants to point out a similarity between two subjects. They tell us that the previous idea is similar to the next one in some way. Some words that show comparison are: like, as, just like, just as, in like manner, equally, similarly, in a similar fashion, in the same way.


Words that Show Illustration
These words are used if you as a writer want to provide one of more examples to develp and clarify a given idea. They tell us that the second idea is an example of the first. Some illustration words are: for example, for instance, as an illustration, to illustrate, such as, to be specific, including.


Words that Show Location
Location transitions show a relationship in space. They tell us where something is in relation to something else. Some of these words can be: next to, in front of, in back of, below, between, inside, outside, opposite, on top of, across, beneath, in the middle of, on the other side, at the end of, ahead of, over, under, behing, near, far.


Words that Show Cause and Effect
These types of words are useful if an author wants to describe a result of something. They tell us what happened or will happen because something else happened. These type of words are: because, if... then, as a result, consequently, accordingly, therefore, since, so.


Words that Summarize or Conclude
These types of words are used when the idea that follows will sum up the entire writing or a final statement will be written as a conclusion. These words are: in summary, in conclusion, in short, all in all, in brief, in other words, on the whole, to conclude, to sum up.


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Punctuation Rules

One of the most important aspects to take into consideration when you write is punctuation. It will tell your reader when to stop or when to change the interpretation of your paper. Speakers use intonation and writers use punctuation. Some of the most common marks in English are the following:


Period- Use a period after a statement or command.

Turn on the television.
We are studying English.

- Use a period after most abbreviations.

Mr.
Ms.
Dr.



Question MarkUse a question mark in an interrogative statement. In a direct quotation, the question mark goes before the quotation mark.

He said, "Are you coming home?"


Comma- Use a comma before a conjunction (and, or, so, but) that separates two independent clauses.

She wanted to learn to cook, so she decided to buy herself a book.

- Don't use a comma before a conjunction that separates two incomplete sentences.

She worded in the library and studied at night.

- Use a comma to separate interrupting expressions from the rest of the sentence.

Do you know, by the way, what time it is?

- Use a comma after yes and no in answers.

Yes, my father is a doctor.

- Use a comma to separate an apposite form the rest of the sentence.

Mr. Smith, the new teacher, really knows how to teach.

Would you like to try a taco, a traditional Mexican dish?


Quotation Marks- Use quotation marks at the beginning and at the end of exact quotations.

He said, "I'm going to get married."

- Use quoation marks before and after titles of stories, articles, songs, and TV shows.

Do you want to watch "Friends" on TV?

My favorite song is "Disappear" by INXS.



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Capitalization Rules

We use a capital letter in the following cases:


First words
- Capitalize the fist word of every sentence.

- Capitalize the first word of a quotation.


Personal Names
- Capitalize the names of people including initials and titles of address.

- Capitalize family words if they appear alone of followed by a name.

Let's go, Dad.
Where's Grandma?

- Do not capitalize family words with a possessive pronoun or article.

My uncle
An aunt

- Capitalize names of God.

Allah


Place Names- Capitalize the names of countries, states, provinces, cities, lakes, rivers, islands, mountains

Makkah
Jeddah
Mexico
the Amazon
Lake Ontario

- Do not capitalize the names of seasons

summer
spring
fall
winter
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: How to write a paragraph   الأربعاء أغسطس 05, 2009 10:38 am

Thanks too much
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